5.SOCIAL ISSUES

"Even after 65 years of independence India is not totally free from barriers such as caste, religion, region, etc. as evidenced by the unhappy incidents that are constantly being reported in the media. People who are socially and economically unprivileged are denied of their freedom by those who enjoy all privileges of living in a free country. We hear about child labour, dowry deaths, female infanticides, and the like incidents almost every day. We have to reflect whether this is the India that we want, what our great poet Tagore envisaged when he wrote, Where the mind is without fear and the head is held high Where knowledge is free Where the world has not been broken up into fragments By narrow domestic walls Where words come out from the depth of truth Where tireless striving stretches its arms towards perfection Where the clear stream of reason has not lost its way Into the dreary desert sand of dead habit Where the mind is led forward by thee Into ever-widening thought and action Into that heaven of freedom, my Father, let my country awake Students in class 10 should have a critical perspective on different social issues and should be able to take up leadership roles to bring about the awakening of India."

Part-A & B: The Storeyed House I & II

The story is presented in two parts with the prevalence of untouchability in India. Bayaji’s story of building a storeyed house for their family gives a clear picture of inhuman practice of untouchability. Bayaji first wants to build a storeyed house. But to avoid notice of people like Patil, who are the land lords, he builds a concealed storeyed house. On the day of house warming, a celebration is organized in Bayaji’s new house. Suddenly the house catches fire. Bayaji is caught in the fire and burnt severely. He breathes his last. After his burial, his sons start building a new house. This time it is not concealed storeyed house, a real storeyed house. The humility and wisdom exhibited by Bayaji is typical of a mature person from an oppressed group. The awakening that finally comes in his sons shows them their timely purpose of building their real storeyed house. It is not just the question of building a house. It is the question of assertion and it is an urge to seek and make others acknowledge their identity.

Part-C: Abandoned

‘ Abandoned’ is a poem written by Dr. Suraya Nasim. It is about a baby abandoned in a garbage bin. The poem has no fixed pattern. It is like a natural flow. Her poems are simple and easy to read and understand. The poet succeeds in describing the young child, the surroundings of the garbage bin, how insects, cat and rats cause chaos that ends the life of the abandoned infant.

Glossary

  • Momentum (n) : impetus gained by movement.
  • Reluctantly (adv) : unwillingly
  • Truant child (n) : a child (a student) who stays away from school without Leave or permission
  • Lurch (n) : sudden movement
  • Helter -skelter (adv): in disorderly haste
  • Heaved (v) : uttered (a sigh)
  • Grunted (v) : made a low, rough sound (expressing disagreement, boredom or irritation)
  • Dockyard (n) : place where ships are built and repaired
  • Sturdy (adj) : strong and solid; vigorous
  • Mahar (n) : a Dalit community in Maharastra (their main occupations are wall mending, sweeping or agricultural labour)
  • Sundry (adj) : various; several
    Nonplussed : so confused that one does not know what to say or do.
  • Hostility (n) : enmity; ill will
    Mumbled (v) : said indistinctly
  • Pleasantries (n) : jocular or humorous remarks
  • Scampered (v) : ran quickly
  • Trenches (n) : ditches dug in the ground
  • Ventured (v) : took the risk of
  • Faltered (v) : spoke in hesitating manner
  • Ruffians (n) : violent, cruel men
  • Troupes (n) : companies of actors or singers
  • Engrossed (adj):gave all attention to something absorbed
  • Thug (n) : violent criminal
  • Seasoned (adj) : having a lot of experience of doing something
  • Ambience (n) : environment; atmosphere
  • Swayed (v) : moved
  • Refuge (n) : shelter or protection
  • Frantic (adj) : wildly excited with pain or anxiety
  • Agony (n) : great pain or suffering
  • Collapsed (v) : fell down
  • Calamity (n) : great and serious misfortune or disaster
  • Dampened (v) : made sad or dull
  • Abandoned (v) : left something or somebody forever.
  • Irradiating (v) : sending rays of light upon; light up
  • Shriek (n) : short, loud high cry
  • Hysteria (n): uncontrolled excitement
  • Eerie (adj) :  causing a feeling of mystery and fear.
  • Destiny (n) :power believed to control events
  • crap (n) : solid waste
  • Cyanosed (adj) : a deep greenish blue coloured
  • Gnawing (v) : biting steadily at something

Idioms, Phrases and Phrasal Verbs

  • Come up (phr.v) : reach a particular point / approach / draw near
  • goddammit (phr) : an expression used to show that one is angry or annoyed
  • Get down (phr.v) : descend / come down / move down / go down
  • Put... together (phr.v): assemble / bring together / used unitedly
  • Initial momentum (phr): basic movement
  • With ease (phr) : easily / without much effort
  • Hang around (phr. v): stay in a place
  • Day and night (phr.): all the time
  • Sound health (phr) : having the impression of keeping good health
  • Humble salutations (phr): a polite expression of greeting people
  • Knock down (phr. v): hit and injure someone
  • Spring on (phr.v) : throw / jump / make one responsible / blame
  • Set foot (idiom) : enter some place
  • Fund amount (phr): the total amount of money that has been saved
  • At leisure (idm) : at one’s convenience / when somebody is free (not busy)
  • Mock sympathy (phr) : insincere or pretending feeling of sharing other’s emotions
  • Idle curiosity (phr) : wanting to know something for no specific reason
  • Gave out (phr.v) : made (a sound)
  • Had been married off (v.phr): got married
  • Looked after (phr.v) : took care / managed
  • Lifetime’s earnings (phr) : money saved in life
  • Ran one’s (his) eyes (idiom) : looked quickly at the whole of something
  • Wear out (phr.v) : become damaged
  • Eat by turns (phr) : eat one after another (There is no sufficient space or room in the house to sit all at one time so they eat one after another)
  • Cry from the rooftops (idiom) : public announcement
  • Untouchable creature (phr) : a person who cannot be touched/ a person considered to be the lowest social group
  • Lose your (one’s) head (idiom) : not to have control of your emotions
  • Set aside (phr.v) : save something for a particular purpose/ save
  • Turn one’s (your) head (idiom) : cause to become proud or arrogant
  • Breath last (idiom) : die
  • Go in for (phr.v) : have an interest in / like / make a choice / choose something
  • Shot (shoot) out (phr.v) : went (go) out
  • Looked forward (phr. v) : expected/ hoped
  • At the sight of (phr) : on seeing
  • Betel leaves (phr) : leaves offered in ceremonies in Hindu culture (tamalapaakulu)
  • Untouchable worm (phr) : an untouchable person who is not liked (here– Bayaji was called untouchable worm)
  • Swollen head (phr) : a person who thinks that he is more important than he really is
  • Gathered momentum (phr) : gained speed and force/ increased level
  • Dropped off (phr.v) : fell asleep
  • In full swing (idiom) :moving quickly forward/ at the peak of the activity
  • Rose up (phr.v) : increased
  • Rent (rend) the air (idiom) : sound piercingly/ disturb sharply with loud noise
  • Took place (idiom) : occurred/ happened
  • Caught (catch) fire (idiom) : ignited (ignite)
  • Put out (phr.v) : extinguish/ stop burning
    Trapped creature (phr) : Here the ‘creature’ was Bayaji. He was caught (trapped) in fire.
  • Came down (phr.v) : fell down
  • Gulped down (phr.v) : controlled emotions by swallowing hard
  • Calmed down (phr.v) : stopped being angry or emotionally excited
  • Sobbing.... heart out (phr) : crying / weeping a lot
  • Pained at heart (phr) : The feelings of sadness touched their hearts.
  • Rest in peace (idiom) :an expression used to wish eternal peace and rest to someone who has died

Synonyms

  • Nonplus :  astonish, bewilder, confound, wonder, confuse
  • Persist : continue, endure, last, remain, persevere
  • Swindle : cheat, con, cozen, deceive, defraud, dupe, embezzle
  • Agony : anguish, distress, pain, pangs
  • Calamity : adversity, catastrophe, disaster, distress
  • Aspiration : aim, ambition, craving, longing
  • Wail : bemoan, deplore, lament, mourn, cry, weep
  • Abandon : abdicate, abjure, leave, relinquish
  • Chaos : anarchy, confusion, disorder, confusion
  • Filthy : dirty, nasty, defiled, foul

Antonyms

  • Reluctant x ready, willing
  • Obstinate x obedient, yielding